Colin Renfrew and the ‘Others’. The (human) Primate to (modern) human cognition. Cognitive Prehistory. Archaeology.


Researching – on the "reason" within the ‘Modern Enlightenment’ – the rejection of it by many in 2008, and on, the ‘latest mass resurgence’ of the nonsenses, ignorance, and fundamentalism’s in some human attitudes, cultures, and worldviews: the ‘popularity of holding personally, and even – ‘on mass’, cognitively, some irrational, impossible, and preposterous – hazardous to downright dangerous: "conviction"’. 
‘The Making of the Human Mind’ by Colin Renfrew and the 5 sequential stages of human development, "a very persuasive one". The first three stages are ‘unilineal’ (where the idea of memes or memetics of Dawkins is found to be a bit loose in its terminology) as in the evolution to Homo sapiens from Homo erectus. Based on ‘Origins of the Modern Mind’ Merlin Donald 1991 and refined by Colin Renfrew and later accepted by Donald.
How did Primitive Man Think? (My note: ‘difficulties’ or the greatest ‘burden’ of humankind with/and the Malthusian, population, argument? – "They depended on kinship where we have developed democracy, they espouse one way of thinking while we embrace another: they are "pre-logical" "bricoleurs" while we are scientifically rational; they are pre-literate but we are literate; they are pre-capitalist, we are capitalist; they are pre-modern, we are modern; they lacked privacy, we have privacy and freedom; they are close to nature, we are buffered by our technology; they are collectivist and we are individualistic; they tended to emphasize the social costs and benefits of undertakings, we accentuate the rational, economic aspects in a search for efficiency. We look back and across from the urban society of which we are members. Condensed – ‘The Domestication Of The Human Species’ Peter J. Wilson. Also, "power and sharing in community, distribution and dispersal" – "To examine this situation I analyse witchcraft, which seems to be an institution of beliefs {my – note: religion} (and to some extent practice) common to domesticated societies {level  – not 1 or 5?! 2/3 to 4 – only?!) but uncommon in both hunter/gatherer and urban industrialised societies.)
Ref, ‘An Adults Guide To God’s’ (part 2). 
"Higher primates other than man, including the Japanese monkey and chimpanzees, possess the rudiments of culture. Only in man has culture infiltrated virtually every aspect of life. Among the fastest cultural responses in industrial civilizations are the fashions in dress and speech. Somewhat slower are political ideology and social attitudes towards other nations, whilst the slowest of all include incest, taboos, and the belief or disbelief in particular high gods. The sacred rituals are the most distinctively human. Their most elementary forms are connected with magic, the active attempt to manipulate nature and the gods. Upper Palaeolithic Art from the caves of Western Europe shows a preoccupation with game animals. There are many sacred scenes showing spears and arrows embedded in the bodies of the pray. Other drawings depict men dancing in animal disguises or standing with their heads bowed in front of animals. Probably the function of the drawings was sympathetic (fetish) magic, based on the quite logical notion that ‘what was done with an image will happen with the real thing’. Magic was and still is in some societies practised by special people variously called Shamans, Sorcerers or Medicine Men. They alone were believed to have the secret knowledge and powers to deal effectively with the supernatural, and as such their influence sometimes exceeded the Tribal Headmen.
Formal religion has many elements of magic, but is focused on deeper more tribally oriented beliefs. Its rites celebrate the creation myths, propitiate the gods and re-sanctify the tribal moral codes. Instead of a shaman controlling physical power their is a priest, who communes with the gods and curries their favour through obedience, sacrifice, and proffered evidences of tribal good behaviour. In the more complex societies, polity and religion have always blended naturally. Power belonged to kings by divine right, but high priests often ruled over kings by virtue of the higher rank of the gods.
It is a reasonable hypothesis that magic and totemism constituted direct adaptations to the environment, and preceded formal religion in social evolution. Sacred traditions occur almost universally in human societies. So do myths that explain the origin of man, or at least, the relation of the tribe to the rest of the world.
But belief in high gods is not universal. Among 81 hunter-gatherer societies surveyed in 1968, only 28 or 35 percent included high gods in their sacred traditions. The concept of an active moral God, who created the World is even less widespread. The concept of an active moral God who created the World, most commonly arises with a pastoral way of life. The greater the dependence on herding, the more likely the belief in a shepherd god of a Judo – Christian model. In other kinds of societies, the belief occurs in 10 percent or less of the cases. Also, the God of Monotheistic Religions is always male. This strong patriarchal tendency has several cultural sources.
a) Pastoral societies are highly mobile, tightly organised and often militant; all features that tip the balance toward male authority.
b) It is also significant that herding, the main economic base is primarily the responsibility of men not women.
c) Because the Hebrew’s were originally a herding people, the Bible describes God as a shepherd and the chosen people as his sheep. Islam, one of the strictest of all the monotheistic faiths, grew to early power among the herding people of the Arabian Peninsular.
The intimate relation of the shepherd to his flock apparently provides a microcosm that stimulates deeper questioning, about the relation of man to the powers that control him. Elementary religions seek the supernatural for the purely mundane rewards of long life, abundant land, and food, the avoidance physical catastrophes, and the defeat of enemies. A form of group selection operates in the competition between sects. Those sects that gain adherents survive, those that cannot fail. Religions vary in their oppressiveness. Religions that are promoted by chieftains and states are the most oppressive, because religion can be effectively harnessed to the purposes of warfare and economic exploitation. (‘The Compulsory Worship Law’ in schools and institutions, UK)
The paradox of religion is that although so much of it is substance is demonstrably false, yet it still exists in all societies. How can such a force in society be extracted from a tissue of illusions? One answer is that virtually all forms of sacred rites serve the purposes of communication. In primitive societies ceremonies can offer information on the strength and wealth of tribes, and families. For example, a group gives a ritual dance and individuals indicate their willingness to give military support to a leader. In more advanced society’s military parades, embellished by the paraphernalia and rituals of the state religion serve the same purpose.
To sanctify a procedure or statement is to certify it beyond question! This certification, the heart of all religions is granted to the practices and dogmas that serve the most vital interests of the group. The sacred rituals for the supreme effort and sacrifice, prepare the individual. Overwhelmed by shibboleths, special costumes, and the sacred dancing, and music, so accurately keyed to his emotive centres he has a religious experience. He is ready to reassert allegiance to his tribe, and family, perform charities, consecrate his life, leave for the hunt, join the battle, and die for God and Country. "Deus Vult" (God wills it) was the rallying cry of the First Crusade.
A second force has been identified leading to the formalization of religion. To counteract selfish behaviour each society codifies itself. In each family (in a tribe) that worked out its own rules; the result would be chaos. Sanctification, adds force to the code. However, this process engenders criticism and in the more literate (advantageous and/in educational respects, many are totally denied this – some Religious or Faith Schools) , and self-conscious, society’s visionaries and revolutionaries: set out to change the system. Reform meets repression, because to the extent that the rules have been sanctified and mythologised (fetishisation), the majority of the people regard them beyond question and disagreement is defined as blasphemy. This leads to the essentially biological question of the evolution of indoctrinability. To any intelligent and unbiased student of the human animal, two facts are clear.
a) Most people would rather believe than know.
b) Humans are absurdly easy to indoctrinate, in fact, they seek it!
Assuming that indoctrinability (like limbs) evolves, at what level does natural selection take place? This is probably both at the group and the individual level, each one reinforcing the other. If in a particular tribe the willingness to believe (indoctrinability) becomes weak, individualistic members gain the upper hand and multiply at the expense of others. This weakens group solidarity, thus making the tribe vulnerable to competing tribes and it eventually it becomes extinct.
Thus, conformism and indoctrinability has gradually become part of the human genetic make up, only a minority of individuals in any generation escaping. This theory is sufficient to account for the evolution of indoctrinability by natural selection. Education may be used to reinforce or to diminish the process". Professor E. O. Wilson ‘Sociobiology’ and condensed.
1) Episodic Stage – Primate cognition 2) Mimetic Stage – 4 million to 400,000years (peaking with Homo erectus) 3) Mythic Stage – first use of complex language – 500,000 years to the present (peaking with Homo sapiens) 4) Material Symbolic Stage. Leslie White recognised this as defining the ‘importance in human culture’ (icons of religious faith, amongst the many other symbols) 5) Theoretic Stage. Donald calls this ‘institutionalised paradigmatic thought’ (writing – ‘massive external memory storage’). A better and more detailed explanation can be found in Colin Renfrew’s  fascinating book ‘Prehistory’. Writing this to try and clarify it in my own mind, as it must be (and in my great ignorance), the ground breaking formation of a basis (and) origin for all leaning! – stunning!
"We do most of our "thinking" without ever being conscious of it". Neuroscientist Chris Frith. Partner choice –
And, "We risk never learning that some of the expectations of reason are just, well, unreasonable" Philosopher Mary Midgley. Does this mean that we can let in our ‘Global Urbanist 2008 World’ the odd suicide or car bomber through the ‘security net’ for the sake of "unreasonable"? Give back to the Taliban Afghanistan for the sake of the tolerance of "unreasonable"? Carry on with miseducating our children with a divisive and sectarian Education Policy of Church Schools or Faith Schools and ‘Compulsory Daily Worship’ and accepting the usurpation of "unreasonable"? Ref, Teacher PC-ness in ‘science’ classes UK.
"Systematic thinking, is apparently, a comparative late development in human experience. It has not played any great part in human life until within the last 3,000 years, and even today those who really control and order their thoughts are but a small minority of humankind. Most of the world still lives by "imagination and passion", see, "profile". There is no sort of savage so low as not to have a kind of science of cause and effect. But, primitive man was not very critical in his associations of cause, with effect. He very easily connected an effect, with something quite alien to its cause, "You do so and so", he said, "And so and so – happens. You give a child a certain berry and it dies. You eat the heart of a valiant enemy and you become strong". There we have two bits of cause and effect association, one true, one false. We call the system of cause and effect, in the mind of a savage, "fetish". But, "fetish", is simply, a savage science. It differs from modern science, in that it is totally unsystematic and uncritical and is more frequently wrong". H.G.Wells. (commonly used – ‘fetishisation’ of a race or culture and in giving abnormal attention to something). Anthropological, ‘fetishisation’ of some parents’ or ‘fetish’ in Education Policy UK.‘Government-witch-hunt’.html
"They preferred the ancient light of divinely blessed authority to the distant glimmer of democracy. "God saith, ‘Touch not mine anointed’", wrote a ‘Cavalier Knight’ as he reluctantly girded on his sword for the battle". ‘English Civil War’ Sir Winston Churchill.
Teacher Tube
Atlas of the Human Journey
Muslim Islamist Demo
The Domestication of the Human Species
Author: PJ Wilson
ISBN: 0300050321
Evolution of the Human Species. Peter J. Wilson, is also the author of Man, The Promising Primate: The Conditions of Human Evolution.

Prehistory: The Making Of The Human Mind: The Making of the Human Mind
Author: Colin Renfrew
ISBN: 0297851209
Cognitive Archaeology and more! All of our ‘human’ prehistory as involuntary migratory explorers and small group, 20 to 30 sedentary (sedentism) dwellers developing symbolism, religion, and order: enhancing purpose, population, thus, our own survival.

About luckyme0

My First family, second marriage, bringing up my 18-year-old twins, boy, and girl. I am a third generation Humanist, who has some old handwritten information and notes; collected over many years. Someone may find the articles interesting, or helpful. They could bring back a little ‘reality’, after being ‘shocked’ and ‘brainwashed’, by some malicious group, or institution (REBT Therapy). People should know better, than to do this, to our very young, and the ‘obviously’ vulnerable! Go to easily accessible, non-superstitious knowledge that is not charlatanism! The blog has given me an incentive to order my thoughts, learn, and read up again, after a few non-thinking years of (very silly) imagination and passion. Why not, get your own key to a ‘door’, customise it to suit you, and it can be, all of your very own! Don’t believe, or be led by someone else’s; inherited, stupid, and a very likely (past, and not of today’s) ‘totally preposterous reality’s’. Only some interest in the ‘really big questions’, keeps life above the level of a farce, and very little else! KEEP THINKING! Some of the posts may need some correcting. Interests: REBT Counselling, Atheism, Secularism, Humanism, Psychology, Reading, Popular Science, School Ethos, Philosophy, History, Family, Parenting, Psychology, Horse Riding, Sailing, Rescue Boat Driver, Skiing (Teppichswinger), TV Documentaries, Motorbike Cross Country Riding, Volunteer Sports Stewarding, Writing, Primitive Man, Pre-history, Social Anthropology, British Humanist Association, BHA, Meaning of Life, The Big Questions, Where am I, What am I, Why am I, Hippie Love, Knowledge, Education, Globalisation. Favorite quote: “The world belongs to those who, at least to some degree, have figured it out.” Carl Sagan, ‘The Demon Haunted World’, ‘Contact’, and other famous books DVD ‘Cosmos’. The warning of another and horrendous, “Age of Superstition”. “Isn’t there something deeply absurd in the presumption that children ought to inherit beliefs from their parents. It can be deeply damaging, even lethally divisive. A ‘them’, with an ‘against us’, mentality” – Professor Richard Dawkins. “The will to believe is stronger than mere reason in the vast majority of people” – Dr J.Brown, Army Psychologist of the 1960′s. Humans will believe in almost anything, in fact, they seek it! Why? “98% of us, trained to be just good consumers, let’s train our children to be the 2% who have their very own creativity and discernment”; quote by a famous surreal artist. “The lack of reason brings forth monsters”. “Global interconnectedness is lethal against mass religion, nationalism, racism, and other destructive memeplexes. Let us connect everybody they hate it in restrictive regimes”; from the ‘meme learning group’, Richard Brodie’s book, ‘Virus Of The Mind’ (Richard Brodie a designer for ‘Microsoft Word’). Following on, J.Bronowski, and ‘The Ascent Of Man’ TV series, and a book with the last DVD in this series, ‘The Long Childhood’ being especially revealing. ‘Prehistory’ and the ‘Making of the Human Mind’ by Colin Renfrew, with P.Wilson’s, ‘The Domestication of the Human Species’, and Nigel Spivey’s, TV series and book, ‘How Art Made The World’, offers some further explanations. Latest reading: Jared Diamond
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