‘The Republic Of Plato’
Chapter X1X p,184 1941 Edition
( Philodoxical – ‘Mankind’ or ‘Humankind’ )
“But what of those who contemplate the realities themselves as they are for ever in the same unchanging state? (regarded as static in Plato’s time) Shall we not say that they have, not mere belief, but knowledge”?
“That too follows”.
“And, further, that their affections goes out to the objects of knowledge, whereas the others set their affections on the objects of belief; for it was they, you remember, who had a passion for the spectacle of beautiful colours and sounds, but would not hear of beauty being a real thing”.
“So we may fairly call them lovers of belief rather than that of wisdom – not philosophical, in fact, but philodoxical. Will they be seriously annoyed by that description”?
“Not if they will listen to my advice. No one ought to take offence at the truth”.
The Four Stages Of Cognition. Highest to the lowest. ‘The Structuralised Levels of Consciousness’ or ‘The Structuralized Levels of Consciousness’. Ref, ‘The Proper Structuralised View of the World’ or ‘The Proper Structuralized View of the World’. Fromm. And, ‘The Structural World View’. Dawkins.
Objects States of Mind
Intelligible World Forms Knowledge*
Mathematical objects Thinking
Visible Things Belief
World Of Appearances Imagining
*”The Being of Platonic philosophy – except that Plato seems to have made the enormous, the grotesque mistake of separating Being from becoming, and identifying it with the mathematical abstraction of the Idea” (‘poor fellow’). Huxley. (Becoming human is a process, not some event.) And, Tolstoy – “As soon as man reaches the highest degree of development (in Tolstoy’s case it was just 32 years of age), he sees that all is bunkum and deceit; and that the truth, which he values above all, is terrible: that when you look at it well and clearly you awake with horror”.
Then, when they are fifty, those who have come safely through and proved the best at all points in action and in study must be brought at last to the goal. They must lift up the eye of the soul to gaze on that which sheds light on all things; and when they have seen the Good itself, take it as a pattern for the right ordering of the state of the individual, themselves included.
Why fifty years of age?
You must have seen how youngsters, when they get their first taste of it, treat argument as a form of sport solely for the purpose of contradiction. When someone has proved them wrong, they copy his methods to confute others, delighting like puppies in tugging and tearing at anyone who comes near them. And so, after a long course of proving others wrong and being proved wrong themselves, they rush to the conclusion that all they once believed is false; and the result is that in the eyes of the world they discredit, not themselves only, but the whole business of philosophy. An older man will not share this craze for making sport of contradiction.
He will prefer to take for his model the conversation of one who is bent on seeking truth, and his own reasonableness will bring credit on the pursuit.
Something that we all learn, “In time, it is true, experience teaches him that magic formulas and ceremonial gestures do not give him what he wants. But until experience has taught him – and he takes a surprisingly long time to learn – man’s behaviour is in many respects far sillier than that of the animal”. Huxley. “Eventually, my rejection of authority spilled into self self-indulgence and self-destructiveness, and by the time I enrolled in College, I’d begun to see how any challenge to convention harbored within it the possibility of its own excesses and its own orthodoxy”. Barack Obama ‘The Audacity of Hope’.
The Modern Matrix?
‘The Making of the Human Mind’ by Colin Renfrew and the 5 sequential stages of human development, “a very persuasive one”. The first three stages are ‘unilineal’ (where the idea of memes or memetics of Dawkins is found to be a bit loose in its terminology) as in the evolution to Homo sapiens from Homo erectus. Based on ‘Origins of the Modern Mind’ Merlin Donald 1991 and refined by Colin Renfrew and later accepted by Donald.
1) Episodic Stage – Primate cognition 2) Mimetic Stage – 4 million to 400,000years (peaking with Homo erectus) 3) Mythic Stage – first use of complex language – 500,000 years to the present (peaking with Homo sapiens) 4) Material Symbolic Stage. Leslie White recognised this as defining the ‘importance in human culture’ (icons of religious faith, amongst the many other symbols) 5) Theoretic Stage. Donald calls this ‘institutionalised paradigmatic thought’ (writing – ‘massive external memory storage’). A better and more detailed explanation can be found in Colin Renfrew’s fascinating book ‘Prehistory’. Writing this to try and clarify it in my own mind, as it must be (and in my great ignorance), the ground breaking formation of a basis (and) origin for all leaning! – stunning!