Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT). Spirituality and Psychotherapy – Conundrum.


An Example of  “Savage Science”? NB “Empirically-based” – nonsense?
Article
An empirically-based rationale for a spiritually-integrated psychotherapy
Mental Health, Religion & Culture
Click here (look it up) for access to the latest key research articles An empirically-based rationale for a spiritually-integrated psychotherapy  Authors:  Kenneth I. Pargament a;  Nichole A.  Murray-Swank b;  Nalini Tarakeshwar
Affiliations:   a Bowling Green State
University, USA
B  Loyola College in Maryland, USA
c  Yale University, USA
DOI: 10.1080/13694670500138940
Published in:  Mental Health, Religion & Culture,
Volume 8, Issue 3 September 2005 , pages 155 – 165
Abstract
In this paper, we offer an empirically-based rationale, for a particular kind of psychotherapy, spiritually-integrated psychotherapy. Drawing on several lines of research we note that:
1) spirituality can be a part of the solution to psychological problems;
2) spirituality can be a source of problems in and of itself;
3) people want spiritually sensitive help;
and
4) spirituality cannot be separated from psychotherapy. We then discuss the defining characteristics of spiritually-integrated psychotherapy. It is based on a theory of spirituality, empirically-oriented, ecumenical, and capable of integration into virtually any form of psychotherapy. The paper concludes by considering potential problems associated with spiritually-integrated psychotherapy, including the risks of trivializing spirituality as simply a tool for mental health, reducing spirituality to presumably more basic motivations and drives, imposing spiritual values on clients, and overstating the importance of spirituality.  Perhaps the greatest danger, however, is to neglect the spiritual dimension in psychotherapy. This paper sets the stage for the articles in this special issue of MHRC which describe the development and evaluation of several innovative approaches to spiritually-integrated psychotherapy.
My Note:
Culture Shift. School Ethos Shift.
(REBT) Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy.
“Irrational beliefs are at the core of emotional disturbance”. Hospital reports (UK) on young people who ‘down’ themselves. Then some (sensitive and/or vulnerable) do self-harming. “MOSTLY AS A RESULT OF IRRATIONAL BELIEFS”. Where (I wonder) do those (particular) beliefs come from (indoctrination/brainwashing)!
Do I want my children even to consider them?
Do parents have any choice in the UK (see photo – application form for a Church or Faith School)?
Do my children have a choice in the UK?
Does any one care, except when (they) children or young adults misbehave?
What are the (later) social results of “superstition” in education and the rejection of the “modern synthesis” and the “modern enlightenment”?
What are the consequences when the “superstition” believed in and the “peers” that are trusted, are then found out to be time wasters and the authority of the (past respected) “peers” realised as complete charlatans?
Where does this leave the more sensitive or normal  individual?
We know that the Church and Religions have a fight on their hands for memberships and followers. There is no excuse for a blatant discrimination against secularism or the secularist (non-religious) families and their children – sponsored financially by the State – contained within the dreadful ‘application form’ for a child’s entry to a (local) School. It does any belief/faith system a large disfavour by showing up the underlying discrimination of the Church and State/Local Government in its avoidance or exploitation (spirit of) the Law of the recently passed Equality Act. It also shows up the problem of discrimination that exists, not in the outside secular world, but deep within the Churches and Religions, it as, as if, they cannot help themselves: however good may be their own rhetoric and dogma. They will have to attend lengthy and difficult (for them) ‘seminars’ to realise their own past errors in not recognising the full acceptance of toleration by most people in our society and for all its people.

Is evil a useful term? There is a school of thought that holds that no person is evil, that only acts may be properly considered evil. Psychologist and mediator Marshall Rosenberg claims that the root of violence is the very concept of “evil” or “badness.” When we label someone as bad or evil, Rosenberg claims, it invokes the desire to punish or inflict pain. It also makes it easy for us to turn off our feelings towards the person we are harming. He cites the use of language in Nazi Germany as being a key to how the German people were able to do things to other human beings that they normally wouldn’t do. He links the concept of evil to our judicial system, which seeks to create justice via punishment — “punitive justice” — punishing acts that are seen as bad or wrong. He contrasts this approach with what he found in cultures where the idea of evil was non-existent. In such cultures, when someone harms another person, they are believed to be out of harmony with themselves and their community, they are seen as sick or ill and measures are taken to restore them to a sense of harmonious relations with themselves and others, as opposed to punishing them.

Psychologist Albert Ellis makes a similar claim, in his school of psychology called Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy or REBT. He says the root of anger, and the desire to harm someone, is almost always one of these beliefs:

  1. That they should/shouldn’t have done certain things
  2. That someone is an awful/bad/horrible person for doing what they did
  3. That they deserve to be punished for what they did

He claims that without one of the preceding thoughts, violence is next to impossible.

And from an ‘article’ – “Sometimes, while waiting for the subway, I imagine someone getting pushed in front of the train. Does this sound like someone with good mental health? A patient in need of medication or a good therapist? Nope. The above quote comes from me — a clinical psychologist! It is a line that I often use with a number of clients seeking therapy — particularly clients suffering from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). There may be a few questions swirling around in your head at this point, such as “Why do you tell clients about your crazy thoughts?” or “Hey, should this guy have a license to work with the public?” However, I bet there are readers who are thinking “Oh thank god, I am not the only one who experiences weird and random thoughts of violence.” Intrusive Thoughts – Psychologists have known for a long time that “normal” people experience all kinds of thoughts, images, and impulses — including those of violence and repugnant sexual acts. They are referred to as intrusive thoughts because they pop into people’s minds without their control. In 1978, psychologists studying obsessive thinking asked a group of healthy and normal people (e.g. students and professionals) whether they experience intrusive thoughts, and if so, what is the nature of these thoughts. The psychologists discovered that the majority of people admitted to having intrusive thoughts. Not surprising. What is perhaps more interesting was the nature or content of these thoughts. Here are several examples from participants in that study:

  • Thoughts of harming another person
  • The impulse to jump in front of the train
  • Thoughts of acts of violence while having sex
  • The impulse to harm, or be violent towards children
  • The impulse to crash their car while driving
  • The impulse to violently attack or kill another person
  • Thoughts of suicide

In 1980, a different group of psychologists published a paper that described the development of a questionnaire called the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (a popular measure used today in research and practice). The researchers gave a large group of university students a list of thoughts that might have popped into their heads over the past week. Again, the psychologists found that these student volunteers experienced a range of negative thoughts, such as “I’m worthless,” “I’m a failure,” and “I’m no good” http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/roger-covin/intrusive-thoughts-of-violence_b_1310749.html And, http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22229660.500-weird-thoughtgenerator-how-societys-fears-shape-ocd.html And, http://www.nmhrc.com/excerpts/Intrusive%20Thoughts%20in%20Clinical%20Disorders.pdf

About luckyme0

My First family, second marriage, bringing up my 18-year-old twins, boy, and girl. I am a third generation Humanist, who has some old handwritten information and notes; collected over many years. Someone may find the articles interesting, or helpful. They could bring back a little ‘reality’, after being ‘shocked’ and ‘brainwashed’, by some malicious group, or institution (REBT Therapy). People should know better, than to do this, to our very young, and the ‘obviously’ vulnerable! Go to easily accessible, non-superstitious knowledge that is not charlatanism! https://charleslizzy.com/2011/08/06/independent-schools-inspectorate-isi-marketing-spirituality-buzzword-or-maybe-even-for-you-to-shiver-at-the-something/ The blog has given me an incentive to order my thoughts, learn, and read up again, after a few non-thinking years of (very silly) imagination and passion. Why not, get your own key to a ‘door’, customise it to suit you, and it can be, all of your very own! Don’t believe, or be led by someone else’s; inherited, stupid, and a very likely (past, and not of today’s) ‘totally preposterous reality’s’. Only some interest in the ‘really big questions’, keeps life above the level of a farce, and very little else! KEEP THINKING! Some of the posts may need some correcting. Interests: REBT Counselling, Atheism, Secularism, Humanism, Psychology, Reading, Popular Science, School Ethos, Philosophy, History, Family, Parenting, Psychology, Horse Riding, Sailing, Rescue Boat Driver, Skiing (Teppichswinger), TV Documentaries, Motorbike Cross Country Riding, Volunteer Sports Stewarding, Writing, Primitive Man, Pre-history, Social Anthropology, British Humanist Association, BHA, Meaning of Life, The Big Questions, Where am I, What am I, Why am I, Hippie Love, Knowledge, Education, Globalisation. Favorite quote: “The world belongs to those who, at least to some degree, have figured it out.” Carl Sagan, ‘The Demon Haunted World’, ‘Contact’, and other famous books DVD ‘Cosmos’. The warning of another and horrendous, “Age of Superstition”. “Isn’t there something deeply absurd in the presumption that children ought to inherit beliefs from their parents. It can be deeply damaging, even lethally divisive. A ‘them’, with an ‘against us’, mentality” – Professor Richard Dawkins. “The will to believe is stronger than mere reason in the vast majority of people” – Dr J.Brown, Army Psychologist of the 1960′s. Humans will believe in almost anything, in fact, they seek it! Why? “98% of us, trained to be just good consumers, let’s train our children to be the 2% who have their very own creativity and discernment”; quote by a famous surreal artist. “The lack of reason brings forth monsters”. “Global interconnectedness is lethal against mass religion, nationalism, racism, and other destructive memeplexes. Let us connect everybody they hate it in restrictive regimes”; from the ‘meme learning group’, Richard Brodie’s book, ‘Virus Of The Mind’ (Richard Brodie a designer for ‘Microsoft Word’). Following on, J.Bronowski, and ‘The Ascent Of Man’ TV series, and a book http://www.bbcshop.com/science+nature/the-ascent-of-man/invt/9781849901154/ with the last DVD in this series, ‘The Long Childhood’ being especially revealing. ‘Prehistory’ and the ‘Making of the Human Mind’ by Colin Renfrew, with P.Wilson’s, ‘The Domestication of the Human Species’, and Nigel Spivey’s, TV series and book, ‘How Art Made The World’, offers some further explanations. Latest reading: Jared Diamond http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jared_Diamond
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