The Prehistoric Mind. How did Prehistoric Man Think? The Primitive Mind.


In Word on SkyDrive, as I am having some trouble – thousands of hits! Now on OneDrive, or some of it. Other links and info on the blog.
 
 
The Prehistoric Mind. How did Prehistoric Man Think ? 
 
The Primitive Mind

Problem of discerning cultural and religious phenomena.
    Religion is a mental or spiritual phenomenon in which the sacred or supernatural world plays an important part. Obviously, this essential expression of religion cannot be investigated archaeologically – the remains are “word-less”. Religious meanings can only be inferred indirectly and in exceptional circumstances from the material finds. The investigation of prehistoric religion faces the problem of determining which objects and finds are to be taken as signs of religious intention, experience, and activity. Not all unusual and puzzling finds necessarily reflect something religious; moreover, there are some remains that may have had a profane as well as a religious or magical function.
Conjectural nature of scholarly statements.
   In all probability, only a small number of the material remains of prehistoric religious practices have been preserved and still fewer of them discovered and adequately documented. This intensifies the necessarily fragmentary nature of all statements about prehistoric religion. Uncertainties about methodology further aggravate disputes among  scholars as to the reliability or probability of their interpretations. As with historians in general, there is a positivistic position, the proponents of which desire little more than to classify, describe, and define their specific finds and findings. That stance is opposed by another position that, in addition, considers it important to relate these findings to common human experiences and to seek out analogies with situations in more recent times; that is, to attempt a reconstruction of prehistoric spiritual life.
Methods.

Material remains. Although religion is largely a mental phenomenon, it involves numerous material accessories: artefacts and places of cultic and ceremonial significance, pictures and symbols, sacrifices, and votive offerings. In many cases religion makes use of art and, to some degree, certain inferences about religious conceptions can be drawn from burial sites. The interpretation of such sources from analogies with present-day religious practices means, in effect, that a more or less complete congruence or similarity is being inferred from a partial congruence that is observed. Not infrequently, particular findings can be explained in various ways. It is often unclear, for example, to which religions category a find belongs, since a sacrifice and a burial, cannibalism and human sacrifice, or animal sacrifice an animal cult are frequently not distinguishable archaeologically. Thus, it is not enough to select some particular present day ‘primitive’ religious phenomenon and apply it automatically to archaeological material; rather, it is first necessary to carry out extensive comparative studies in order to ascertain connections of sufficient scope and to establish a basic congruence of meanings. Usually only general trends, rather than concrete particulars, can be comprehended in this fashion.
 
Nevertheless, the find may be interpreted in various ways and, hence, it becomes necessary to select the most workable, or the most probable, interpretation. A fundamental prerequisite for the use of historical-cultural analogies is the assumption of the psychic unity of human nature (i.e., that human beings in all times and places are essentially the same mentally); hence, the basic question arises as to whether or not early prehistoric humans can be included in that unity. The particular answer one gives to this question corresponds to a great extent to his particular approach, whether from the point of biology or the humanities. The biological sciences tend to view early man even physically  as half animal, while human studies emphasize more strongly the fundamental similarities that connect even the earliest humans and cause them to stand apart from the animals. 
 
“T h e   M i n d   B l o w i n g   C o n n e c t i o n” !
 
 Whatever the case, it can no longer be doubted that earliest man stands closer to present-day man from the evolutionary and biological aspects animals known today (including the ‘highest apes’), and that the quality of early man’s mental accomplishments separates him from other animals and binds him fundamentally to present day humans.
 
For that reason it is generally sound at least as a guiding principle in empirical research – to view prehistoric man as essentially human, to understand him in terms of human nature, and to proceed from the assumption of the psychic unity of mankind, without thereby excluding further evolution and development.
The application of ‘Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy’ (REBT) on the ‘Prehistoric Mind of Man’. ‘The Primitive Mind’. Behaviourism or Behaviorism.
Question:  Mummy, asks Daddy, “How did Primitive Man think”?
 
More to do – to this bit! Start: the corrections from 16/03/09 *correction marks 

Question:  Mummy, asks Daddy, “How did Primitive Man think”?

*If we know how he/she (PM) thought, we may be able to learn how to think about overcoming the self-evident appalling-ness of primitive barbarity, ignorance, and the inherent superstitions; existing within the modern social world of man. Western modern man, and modern woman; so sheltered by their social system, having a much more complicated input to their mind or mindsets. Mostly, this mindset belongs in a framework of an urban social network, with the mind indoctrinated and brainwashed in a closed system of thought or a stage set by the popular media. We have been so embroiled in it, with our senses dulled by the consumerist urbanisation, unable to fully understand the importance of our deep roots within the primitive mind. A study of prehistoric man and the primitive mind, gives us some answers, far beyond those of philosophy and religion. Everything we think and every thought we ever have had does stem from our relatively greater time existing, as we are now, within thousands of years of our prehistory.* Ref, Beyond the comfort zone and, no – Wiki or Google for 1st year Uni students. http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b00j17xt/Analysis_Clever.com/ ‘Fairy Fancy’ Richard Dawkins. Chat rooms – networking, ‘change our brains’ – for the better? Something, may be, an awful lot better than nothing! http://luckyme0.spaces.live.com/blog/cns!A18BF3FCC5E126A2!2959.entry

 
Note: Sedentism – its route to – Housing and cosmological thought and structured thinking – language, rituals (not so possible without sedentism). Half Nomadic – half unstructured thinking humans feed partially from the ‘fully’ human sedentists. Psuedo-sedentists or psuedo-sedentism of the reasonably ‘secure’ coastal dwellers in west Africa living 100 of thousands of years before – to the, ‘extreme (modern) thinkers of ‘ancient’ Greece’! 
  
Peter Wilson and Colin Renfrew – The ‘Great Leap Forward’ and a ‘Structuralised World View’. “The adoption of the house as the permanent context of social and economic life also marks a major development in cosmological thinking – The adoption of the house and the village also ushers in a development of the structure of social life, the elaboration of thinking about the structure of the world and the strengthening of the links between the two”. Peter Wilson and Richard Dawkins ‘The Great Leap Forward ‘The Ancestor’s Tale’ – a book for every family! Note: a great progression of  Writing/Art/Language so on…
Stephen Hawking “From the confines of my wheelchair I can freely roam around the Universe”!

“T h e   P r e h i s t o r i c    M i n d” !  

Primitive man probably thought very much as a young child thinks that is to say “in a series of imaginative pictures”. He conjured up images or images presented themselves to his mind, he acted in accordance with the emotions they aroused. So, a young child or an uneducated person does today. Systematic thinking, is apparently, a comparative late development in human experience. It has not played any great part in human life until within the last 3000 years, and even today, those who really control and order their thoughts are but a small minority of humankind. Most of the world still lives by imagination and passion. ‘A Short History of the World’ H.G.Wells. Ref, “pre-logical” or “bricoleurs” “Bricolage” (improvisation) ‘The Domestication Of The Human Species’ Peter Wilson. 
 
“S a v a g e   S c i e n c e” !
   There is no sort of savage so low as not to have a kind of science, of cause and effect. But, primitive man was not very critical in his associations of cause, with effect. He very easily connected an effect, with something quite alien to its cause. “You do so and so”, he said, “And so and so happens”. “You give a child a certain berry and it dies. You eat the heart of a valiant enemy and you become strong”. There we have two bits of cause and effect association, one true, one false. We call the system of cause and effect in the mind of a Savage ‘Fetish’, but fetish is simply ‘Savage Science’. It differs from modern science, in that it is ‘totally unsystematic and uncritical and is more frequently wrong’. H.G.Wells.
   When we see man 20,000 years ago, having completed the colonization of the six continents, which had begun a million years earlier, it is time to look back and survey his position. How did these people think? Almost universally they must have had a Primitive Mind. The pre-logical or semi-rational mind that fails to separate the individual from the group, and which, pursuing causes with misguided zeal argues “post hoc ergo propter hoc” (after this, therefore on account of this, the after-so-because: fallacy). Our civilised societies have never excluded the Primitive Mind. There are a proportion of people in all societies, who see no sense in the definition connections, and inferences, which their teachers hold to be self-evident. Indeed, in all societies there is more pre-logical thinking than we like to admit.
   Civilization, we may say, has advanced only at the cost of a struggle between science and superstition, working on the intelligence of the participants. A struggle of whose progress the legal status of torture and the social status of astrology; might serve as indicators. Advanced societies, therefore, are so stratified as to keep the Primitive Mind in a subordinate position. In this way individual responsibility and the rules of evidence, allow with fluctuating success, the development of law and the organisation of knowledge and all that follows from these practises. ‘The Little Universe of Man’,  Professor CD Darlington.
   Western civilization is a thin and precarious crust, erected by the personality and the will of a very few and only maintained by rules and conventions skilfully put across, and guilefully preserved’. Lord Keynes, Economist.
   It is probably true that in general, the higher the education of individuals becomes the more their views are differentiated. If we wish to find a high degree of uniformity and similarity of outlook, we have to descend to the regions of lower moral and intellectual standards, where the more primitive, and common, instincts and taste prevail. This does not mean that the majority of people have low moral standards; it merely means that the largest group of people, whose values are very similar are the people with low standards. It is, as it were, the lowest common denomitor, which unites the largest number of people. ‘The Road to Serfdom’ Professor, F.A.Hayek, Nobel Prize Economics. Ref, UK: “PC is low, low church, like the Church of England; it is the lowest common denomination” ‘The Second Plane’ Martin Amis. 
“A N O M Y” !
(anthropological anomie/anomy – anomic, bricoleurs or Bricolage and pre-logical)
‘The Savage Mind’ Claude Levi Strauss
   Anomy signifies the state of mind of one who has no standards, but only disconnected urges. He derides knowledge, education, and values. His only faith is the philosophy of denial and derision. He lives on the thin line of sensation, between no future and no past, responsive only to trivia. ‘Life Chances’, Professor Darendorf.
   With regard to all the basic questions of existence, a great section of our culture has just one function to befog the issues. One kind of smokescreen is the assertion that the problems are too complicated for the average individual to grasp.
 
   On the contrary, it would seem that many of the basic issues are very simple, so simple in fact that everyone should be expected to understand them!
 
   To let them appear to be so enormously complicated that only a specialist can understand them, which tends to discourage people from trusting their own capacity to think. The result of this is twofold – a scepticism and cynicism towards everything, which is said or printed; and a childish belief in anything which is told with autority. This combination of cynicism and naivete is typical of some modern individuals. Its essential result is to discourage him from doing his own thinking and deciding. George Orwell.
 
“B e w i l d e r e d   and   A f r a i d” !
Another way of paralysing the ability to think critically is the destruction of any kind of ‘Proper Structuralised Picture/View of the World’.
 
Facts lose the specific quality, which they can have only as parts of a structuralised whole and stay abstract, and inert, quantitively unmeaning, each fact is just another fact, and all that matters is whether we know more or less. The media does have a devastating effect on this score, with the sometimes disregard of any scale of importance between life and death struggles between people and the importance given to trivia. This can hamper our judgement. Eventually, our attitude to what is going on in the world assumes a quality of flatness and indifference, life loses all structure. It is composed of many little pieces, each separate from the other and lacking any sense as a whole. The individual is left alone with these pieces – like a child with a puzzle. The difference, however, is that the child knows what a house is and therefore can recognise the parts of the house in the little pieces he is playing with, whereas, the adult does not see the meaning of the whole, the pieces of which come into his hands. He is ‘Bewildered and Afraid’ and just goes on gazing at his meaningless little pieces. ‘The Fear of Freedom’. Dr Erich Fromm.
   In our society, those who have the best knowledge of what is happening are also those who are furthest from seeing the world as it is! George Orwell.
   Of course, everyone has the ‘right’ to hold ‘backward’ (primitive) beliefs as long as they fully realise (through education) what their own faith and in the belief’s system that they may belong to; in regard to ‘responsibilities’ for other people (less educated) and cultures (less advanced), advancement in the world.
 
Their is no such thing as a glorious past with its lack of science: just ignorance, privation and deprivation for all people everywhere. CW.
 
 
In Every Primitive Tribe
 
“In every primitive  (anthropological anomie/anomy – anomic, bricoleurs or Bricolage and pre-logical) tribe we find the medicine man in the centre of society and it is easy to show that the medicine man (sometimes: a leader, politician, doctor, celebrity or royal – one who knows what is best for all others) is either a neurotic or a psychotic or at least that his art is based on the same mechanisms as a neurosis or a psychosis. Human groups are actuated by their group ideals, and these are always based on the infantile situation. The infancy situation is modified or inverted by the process of maturation, again modified by the necessary adjustment to reality, yet it is there and supplies those unseen libidinal ties without which no human groups could exist. The medicine men are the leaders in this infantile game and the lightning conductors of common anxiety. They fight the demons so that others can hunt the pray and in general fight reality.” Dr Geza Roheim, ‘The Origin and Function of Culture’.
 
The Truths Contained In Religious Doctrines
 
“The truths contained in religious doctrines are after all so distorted and systematically disguised,” writes Sigmund Freud, “that the mass of humanity cannot recognize them as truth. The case is similar to what happens when we tell a child that new born babies are brought by the stork. Here, too, we are telling truth in symbolic clothing, for we know what a large bird signifies. But the child does not know it. He hears only the distorted part of what we say, and feels that he has been deceived; and we know how often his distrust of the grown-ups and his refractoriness actually take their start from this impression. We have become convinced that it is better to avoid such symbolic disguisings of the truth in what we tell children and not to withhold from them a knowledge of the true state of affairs commensurate with their intellectual level”.
 
Not So Primitive – More Like Today
 
“Through time… there emerges a power, held and manipulated perhaps by a priest, a warrior, a manager, or a charismatic madman who just happens to be the genealogical leader of the largest kin group in the now heterogenous social fabric. The power itself represents a quantum leap over anything previosly weilded, but it is a long time before the weilders of the new power realize its full extent and possibilities. Far from being a conscious creation of naturally power hungry psychological types, it is at least as probable that the power developes more rapidly than the abilities of its handlers”. ‘The Evolution of Political Society’ Morton Fried – Ref, ‘The Domestication Of The Human Species’ Peter Wilson.
 
‘Useless Knowledge’ Bertrand Russell. “Additional to the animal urges of survival and copulation, there is curiosity and fear of the new, both inherited from our primate ancestors. In humans, they are called neophilia (love of the new) and neophobia (fear of the new). The evidence is that neophobia is the stronger urge in humans and their cousins the apes. A few historical examples will illustrate our strong neophobic urge…” Ref, Blog – to be corrected, at the start of blog http://luckyme0.spaces.live.com/blog/cns!A18BF3FCC5E126A2!210.entry
 
“Evolution has been a matter of days well-lived, chameleon strength, energy, zappy sex, sunshine stored up, inventiveness, competitiveness, and the whole fun of busy brain cells”. Edward Hoagland 1932 –  http://encarta.msn.com/refedlist_210028267_5/Evolution_Evolution_has_been_a_matter_of_days_.html#tcsel
 

The Taliban (tribal culture) :-

‘Shag em out’ and ‘peace and love’ Drugs of the psyops! Viagra for Warlords – the ‘recreational drug of choice’ in forming the ‘new utopia’ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/7800549.stm
 
A Note
 
1) Episodic Stage – Primate cognition 2) Mimetic Stage – 4 million to 400,000years (peaking with Homo erectus) 3) Mythic Stage – first use of complex language – 500,000 years to the present (peaking with Homo sapiens) 4) Material Symbolic Stage. Leslie White recognised this as defining the ‘importance in human culture’ (icons of religious faith, amongst the many other symbols) 5) Theoretic Stage. Donald calls this ‘institutionalised paradigmatic thought’ (writing – ‘massive external memory storage’). A better and more detailed explanation can be found in Colin Renfrew’s  fascinating book ‘Prehistory’. Writing this to try and clarify it in my own mind, as it must be (and in my great ignorance), the ground breaking formation of a basis (and) origin for (all our own) leaning! – stunning! 
 
“We do most of our “thinking” without ever being conscious of it”. Neuroscientist Chris Frith. Partner choice – http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/7558499.stm
The Dramatic Discovery Of Our Oldest Human Ancestor ‘Lucy’ The Beginnings Of Humankind – Donald C. Johanson and Maitland A. Edey.    
 
Spandrel
 
Volume 45, Number 9 · May 28, 1998
‘The Prehistory of the Mind’: An Exchange
By Merlin Donald, Steven Mithen, Reply by Howard Gardner
In response to Evolutionary Psychology: An Exchange (October 9, 1997)
To the Editors:
The exchange between Stephen Jay Gould and Steven Pinker [NYR, October 9, 1997]
regarding the nature of evolutionary psychology and more specifically the notion
of cognitive spandrels was entertaining and informative. Which aspects, if any,
of our mental functioning are spandrels, as opposed to adaptive mechanisms
“designed” by natural selection to solve the kinds of problems faced by our
ancestors in their struggle to survive and reproduce (quoting Pinker), is an
extremely important question that requires serious discussion and debate. But it
also involves a study of precisely what those “kinds of problems” may have been,
and quite how our ancestors solved them.
In this regard a serious weakness in the current literature of evolutionary
psychology is the almost blasé disregard for the archaeological, fossil, and
palaeoenvironmental records that provide evidence to address these questions.
Reading much of the evolutionary psychology literature as an archaeologist, I
find it astonishing that gross generalizations are made about our Pleistocene
hunter-gatherer past, with such little reference to the research of
archaeologists who endeavor to reconstruct past lifestyles. Pinker did at least
acknowledge the existence and value of the archaeological record, when
commenting about whether reading may be a spandrel. But whatever its theoretical
strengths or shortcomings as debated by Pinker and Gould, evolutionary
psychology will not prosper until it takes the hunter-gatherer past as seriously
as it claims to do so. The archaeological, fossil, and palaeoenvironmental
records provide evidence about past behavior and cognition.
 
First farmers made ‘lucky beads’.  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7457755.stm
 

Prehistoric teenage female and male. Immaturity of youth: see, Farb p30-31. Prehistoric man ‘was never a teenager’. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1694591.stm
Today’s high school and college students are sexually and socially mature, while technologically still juveniles. If denied the economic and social benefits to which maturity entitles them, simply because they have not yet acquired all of the technological skills needed in the modern world: young people may become restless and very antisocial in their behaviour. (menstruation females 1900-14 – 14-15 years – Now, 198O’s 12.6 years – what next! An evolutionary trend?)

Also: children, prehistoric boy or girl, were totally absorbed in the activities of their parents (hypnotically so? Ref, ease of human indoctrination and wishing to believe – almost anything, esp – when young) Therefore society could not advance – parent to child, child becomes parent, and in exactly the same exacting mould: seen in some tribal cultures today – the ‘closed system’ of no cultural, and no social advance or of little or any scientific advances! Dr J.Bronowski. ‘A broad menu’ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7630042.stm Jacob Bronowski ‘The Ascent Of Man’ ‘The Long Childhood’ http://www.bbcshop.com/History/Ascent-Of-Man-DVD/invt/bbcdvd1608 Sexual segregation in some tribes (natural state of homosexuality of puberty recognised as normal, even encouraged – a practise for the adult role – ‘perverted’ by any adult involvement) Re-segregation after the ‘myriad of types of initiation rites’ – homosexuality after an initiation rite is given up, for the young male or female, to play the full part in the adults or tribal forms of the societies accepted forms and its structures of heterosexuality. “Even if homosexuality were, as a matter of fact, ‘unnatural’ (which it probably isn’t), that would not, by itself, justify us in morally condemning it.” ‘The War For Children’s Mind’s’ Stephen Law.

 Child murder and/or murder of loved one’s and/or respected one’s – so that their; the murdered one’s: great strength could be gained from them after death! Ref, ‘Primitive Science’ and in the slaying of a ‘brave or courageous enemy’. Ref, ‘Savage Science’, “You give a child a certain berry and it dies. You eat the heart of a valiant enemy and you become strong”. Anthropological, the play – ‘The Killing of Sister George’ at its ending, and for its general concept as a film category http://www.reverseshot.com/article/killing_sister_george

Latest Discoveries. Iron Age Britain. Time Team Channel4 TV. Nomad (egalitarians – hunter-gatherers) vs Villager’s (vicious – sedentists)  http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/T/timeteam/2008/swords/index.html

Big Brains – 1.4 million years ago http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7721999.stm 14/11/08

Murder http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7733372.stm 4,600 years ago! 18/11/2008

Warfare: How warfare shaped human evolution – life – 12 November 2008 – New Scientist

Link http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20026823.800-how-warfare-shaped-human-evolution.html

Gangs getting ‘more violent’ http://news.uk.msn.com/uk/article.aspx?cp-documentid=12077260

Footprints 1.5 million years – Homo Erectus http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7913375.stm  

BBC – BBC Two Programmes – The Incredible Human Journey, Asia               http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00klf6j

There are seven billion humans on earth, spread across the whole planet. Scientific evidence suggests that most of us can trace our origins to one tiny group of people who left Africa around 70,000 years ago. In this five-part series, Dr Alice Roberts follows the archaeological and genetic footprints of our ancient ancestors to find out how their journeys transformed our species into the humans we are today, and how Homo sapiens came to dominate the planet. In this programme, the journey continues into Asia, the world’s greatest land mass, in a quest to discover how early hunter-gatherers managed to survive in one of the most inhospitable places on earth – the Arctic region of Northern Siberia. Alice meets the nomadic Evenki people, whose lives are dictated by reindeer, both wild and domesticated, and discovers that the survival techniques of this very ancient people have been passed down through generations. Alice also explores what may have occurred during human migration to produce Chinese physical characteristics, and considers a controversial claim about Chinese evolution: that the Chinese do not share the same African ancestry as other peoples. (DNA evidence suggests (proves) it was sexual attraction (over a long period of time) for people to mate with the men or woman who had a distinctive physical characteristic i.e., those with slightly flatter faces and narrower eyes than their ancestors who came from Africa)

The Domestication of the Human Species
Author: PJ Wilson
ISBN: 0300050321
Evolution of the Human Species. Peter J. Wilson, is also the author of Man, The Promising Primate: The Conditions of Human Evolution.
 
 
 

 

Prehistory: The Making Of The Human Mind: The Making of the Human Mind
Author: Colin Renfrew
ISBN: 0297851209
 
Cognitive Archaeology and more! All of our ‘human’ prehistory as involuntary migratory explorers and small group, 20 to 30 sedentary (sedentism) dwellers developing symbolism, religion, and order: enhancing purpose, population, thus, our own survival.
 
Evolution. Fish to Man. Man’s Debt To The Past. http://luckyme0.spaces.live.com/blog/cns!A18BF3FCC5E126A2!960.entry
 

“The fossil, nicknamed Ida, is claimed to be a “missing link” between today’s higher primates – monkeys, apes and humans – and more distant relatives.” http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/8057465.stm?lsm

Evolution, Fish to Man. Man’s Debt to the Past. http://luckyme0.spaces.live.com/blog/cns!A18BF3FCC5E126A2!960.entry ‘The vast majority (>99%) of all species that have ever lived on the Earth have become extinct, with only a privileged minority leaving fossils to attest to their former existence.’ ‘The Tree of Life’ OU. Ref, ‘our or Man’s debt to the past’ and ‘attesting too’: consciousness and the reflection of/in a past history; only man happens, by pure chance, and capable of this extraordinary ability with the human brain having it’s quite amazing quantity of reflective – ‘Mirror Neurons’: from – ‘The Emerging Mind’ Vilayanur Ramachandran. (Neuron = Nerve cell. It is specialised for the transmission of information and characterised by long fibrous projections called axons, and shorter, branch-like projections called dendrites. Synesthesia = A condition in which a person quite literally tastes a shape or sees a colour in a sound or number. This is not just a way of describing experiences as a poet might use metaphors. Synesthetes actually experience the sensations. Ref, empathy, religiosity, tribal instinct, shamanism: the domination of Homo sapien over Neanderthal (isolated in pockets and numbers fall leading to extinction) so on… “We are all synesthetes – to some degree” http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/8070210.stm A binding to the ‘group mind’, or ‘sowing the seeds of our own extinction’, by conforming to the group mind, and “a lack of reason – brings forth monsters”?

BBC – BBC Two Programmes – The Incredible Human Journey, Asia                                                                    http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00klf6j ‘Sun Quest and Sun Gods – Fertility’ 

Alice looks at our ancestors’ seemingly impossible journey to Australia. Miraculously preserved footprints and very old human fossils buried in the outback suggest a mystery: that humans reached Australia almost before anywhere else. How could they have travelled so far from Africa, crossing the open sea on the way, and do it thousands of years before they made it to Europe? (In search or want, maybe, of a ‘Holy Sun Grail’; the quest for ‘sun’ knowledge; like moths to a candle and so go east and find the rising sun – lush hunting grasslands, away from the dark forests, and dank waters and salty seas and the beaches of Indonesia? ‘The Secrets of Stonehenge’ revealed – rising Sun Soltices http://www.channel4.com/programmes/time-team-specials/episode-guide/series-1/episode-2 The results surpass their wildest dreams and this pivotal excavation finally enables the team to reveal not only when Stonehenge was built and how it was built but, perhaps most importantly, why it was built. Fun and Theories of Archaeology) http://luckyme0.spaces.live.com/blog/cns!A18BF3FCC5E126A2!4175.entry

How Art Made The World
Author: Dr Nigel Spivey
ISBN: 0563522054
 
LATEST Early modern humans in South Africa were using “heat treatment” to improve their stone tools about 72,000 years ago, according to new research. Pigments for body or cave decoration at 160,000 years ago! South African Caves.
 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/8195664.stm

Shells – 80,000 years ago! http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/pop_ups/08/sci_nat_enl_1251307747/html/1.stm

Bad Smells http://news.bbc.co.uk/earth/hi/earth_news/newsid_8232000/8232607.stm

Light My Fire: Cooking As Key To Modern Human Evolution

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/08/990810064914.htm

ScienceDaily (1999-08-10) — Fire provided the spark for modern human evolution, but not because it allowed our ancestors to eat meat. Rather, it was the ability to cook tuberous roots akin to carrots, potatoes and beets that caused hominids to turn a major evolutionary corner about 1.9 million years ago, according to anthropologists Richard Wrangham of Harvard University, Gregory Laden of the University of Minnesota and Harvard colleagues David Pilbeam, Jamie Jones and NancyLou Conklin-Brittain.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/today/hi/today/newsid_8270000/8270396.stm ‘A Protection Racket’

And – Much Worse! What goes on in your ‘modern day’ culture!

The facts of evolution are getting more exciting, with the passing of every day! Ref, ‘Creationism is an impertinent insolence that flies in the face of the Divine (nature – naturism or naturalism – naturists) Becoming human is a process and not some event. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/8285180.stm

War and ‘killing’, can be fun (at least, ‘the training’).  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/north_yorkshire/8325588.stm

At last!!! 2011 – Growing Up ‘Primary school children in England will have to learn about evolution and British history under a shake-up of the national curriculum.’ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/8369172.stm  ‘What shall We Tell The Children’ http://www.mindmeister.com/13207398  ‘Additional to the animal urges of survival and copulation, there is curiosity and fear of the new, both inherited from our primate ancestors. In humans they are called neophilia (love of the new) and neophobia (fear of the new). The evidence is that neophobia is the stronger urge in humans and their cousins the apes.’ Fear http://www.berkeleydaily.org/issue/2009-11-19/article/34116?headline=What-Shall-We-Tell-the-Children
 
Archaeologists have found evidence of mass cannibalism at a 7,000-year-old human burial site in south-west Germany, the journal Antiquity reports. 
 
 
2012 “Neanderthals were already on the verge of extinction in Europe by the time modern humans arrived on the scene, a study suggests” http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17179608 And, Red dots, hand stencils and animal figures represent the oldest examples yet found of cave art in Europe. The symbols on the walls at 11 Spanish locations, including the World Heritage sites of Altamira, El Castillo and Tito Bustillo have long been recognised for their antiquity. But researchers have now used refined dating techniques to get a more accurate determination of their ages. One motif – a faint red dot – is said to be more than 40,000 years old.

“What explains the extraordinarily fast rate of evolution in the human lineage over the past two million years? A leading human origins researcher has come up with an idea that involves aggression between groups and the boom-bust cycles that have punctuated our spread into new environments” http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-19598980 And, “Changes to their surroundings can trigger “rapid evolution” in species as they adopt traits to help them survive in the new conditions, a study shows. Studying soil mites in a laboratory, researchers found that the invertebrates’ age of maturity almost doubled in just 20-or-so generations. It had been assumed that evolutionary change only occurred over a much longer timescale. The findings have been published in the journal Ecology Letters” http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-22039872

“Abrupt climate change in Africa helped trigger technological and cultural advances in early modern humans, according to new research. Archaeologists had long noted that the complexity displayed by human groups moved in fits and starts. But there has been a debate about the causes of this stop-start pattern. Analysis of marine sediments suggest a close link between changes in human behaviour and changes in the southern African climate. The research by a British, Swiss and Spanish team is published in the journal Nature Communications” http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-22630912

“A mouse-sized fossil from China has provided remarkable new insights into the origin of primates. At 55 million years old, it represents the earliest known member of this broad group of animals that includes humans. Scientists have called the diminutive creature Archicebus, which roughly translates as “ancient monkey”. They tell Nature magazine that its skeleton helps explain the branching that occurred at the very base of the primate evolutionary tree. The team puts Archicebus on the line leading to tarsiers, a collection of small arboreal animals now found exclusively in south-east Asia” http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-22770646

“The idea that there were several different human species walking the Earth two million years ago has been dealt a blow. Instead, scientists say early human fossils found in Africa and Eurasia may have been part of the same species. Writing in the journal Science, the team says that Homo habilisHomo rudolfensis and Homo erectus are all part of a single evolving lineage that led to modern humans” http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-24564375

“A new theory suggests that our male ancestors evolved beefy facial features as a defence against fist fights. The bones most commonly broken in human punch-ups also gained the most strength in early “hominin” evolution. They are also the bones that show most divergence between males and females. The paper, in the journal Biological Reviews, argues that the reinforcements evolved amid fighting over females and resources, suggesting that violence drove key evolutionary changes” 

“Modern humans and Neanderthals co-existed in Europe 10 times longer than previously thought, a study suggests. The most comprehensive dating of Neanderthal bones and tools ever carried out suggests that the two species lived side-by-side for up to 5,000 years” http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-28693371

Back again, first human 400,000 years in the past, than we thought http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-31718336 1) Episodic Stage – Primate cognition 2) Mimetic Stage – 4 million to 400,000 years (peaking with Homo erectus) 3) Mythic Stage – first use of complex language – 500,000 years to the present (peaking with Homo sapiens) 4) Material Symbolic Stage. Leslie White recognised this as defining the ‘importance in human culture’ (icons of religious faith, amongst the many other symbols) 5) Theoretic Stage. Donald calls this ‘institutionalised paradigmatic thought’ (writing – ‘massive external memory storage’). A better and more detailed explanation can be found in Colin Renfrew’s fascinating book ‘Prehistory’.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-27720617

The Anthropocene – a new geological time period that marks the “Age of man” – began in 1610, a study suggests (Columbus). More interesting: “Humans are possibly the weirdest species to have ever lived. We have freakishly big brains that allow us to build complicated gadgets, understand abstract concepts and communicate using language. We are also almost hairless with weak jaws, and struggle to give birth. How did such a bizarre creature evolve?” http://www.bbc.com/earth/bespoke/story/20150311-the-15-tweaks-that-made-us-human/index.html

Superb TV – We go to the ‘Summer Solstice’ at ‘Stonehenge’ every year; we leave at 3.30 am. Looking forward to this year’s amazing sunrise!http://www.bbc.co.uk/…/a-history-of-ancient-britain-series-…
A History of Ancient Britain –
Series 1: 3. Age of Cosmology
Neil Oliver continues his journey through the world of Ancient Britain as he encounters an age of cosmological priests and some of the greatest monuments of the Stone Age, including Stonehenge itself. This is a time of elite travellers, who were inventing the very idea of Heaven itself.
“A man/woman should be aware of the minuteness of himself and his environment, in relation to the the world in time and space. He should see his own age in relation to the past and future. He should be conscious of the of the vastness of geological epochs and astronomical abysses, so on…” Russell.

About luckyme0

My First family, second marriage, bringing up my 18-year-old twins, boy, and girl. I am a third generation Humanist, who has some old handwritten information and notes; collected over many years. Someone may find the articles interesting, or helpful. They could bring back a little ‘reality’, after being ‘shocked’ and ‘brainwashed’, by some malicious group, or institution (REBT Therapy). People should know better, than to do this, to our very young, and the ‘obviously’ vulnerable! Go to easily accessible, non-superstitious knowledge that is not charlatanism! https://charleslizzy.com/2011/08/06/independent-schools-inspectorate-isi-marketing-spirituality-buzzword-or-maybe-even-for-you-to-shiver-at-the-something/ The blog has given me an incentive to order my thoughts, learn, and read up again, after a few non-thinking years of (very silly) imagination and passion. Why not, get your own key to a ‘door’, customise it to suit you, and it can be, all of your very own! Don’t believe, or be led by someone else’s; inherited, stupid, and a very likely (past, and not of today’s) ‘totally preposterous reality’s’. Only some interest in the ‘really big questions’, keeps life above the level of a farce, and very little else! KEEP THINKING! Some of the posts may need some correcting. Interests: REBT Counselling, Atheism, Secularism, Humanism, Psychology, Reading, Popular Science, School Ethos, Philosophy, History, Family, Parenting, Psychology, Horse Riding, Sailing, Rescue Boat Driver, Skiing (Teppichswinger), TV Documentaries, Motorbike Cross Country Riding, Volunteer Sports Stewarding, Writing, Primitive Man, Pre-history, Social Anthropology, British Humanist Association, BHA, Meaning of Life, The Big Questions, Where am I, What am I, Why am I, Hippie Love, Knowledge, Education, Globalisation. Favorite quote: “The world belongs to those who, at least to some degree, have figured it out.” Carl Sagan, ‘The Demon Haunted World’, ‘Contact’, and other famous books DVD ‘Cosmos’. The warning of another and horrendous, “Age of Superstition”. “Isn’t there something deeply absurd in the presumption that children ought to inherit beliefs from their parents. It can be deeply damaging, even lethally divisive. A ‘them’, with an ‘against us’, mentality” – Professor Richard Dawkins. “The will to believe is stronger than mere reason in the vast majority of people” – Dr J.Brown, Army Psychologist of the 1960′s. Humans will believe in almost anything, in fact, they seek it! Why? “98% of us, trained to be just good consumers, let’s train our children to be the 2% who have their very own creativity and discernment”; quote by a famous surreal artist. “The lack of reason brings forth monsters”. “Global interconnectedness is lethal against mass religion, nationalism, racism, and other destructive memeplexes. Let us connect everybody they hate it in restrictive regimes”; from the ‘meme learning group’, Richard Brodie’s book, ‘Virus Of The Mind’ (Richard Brodie a designer for ‘Microsoft Word’). Following on, J.Bronowski, and ‘The Ascent Of Man’ TV series, and a book http://www.bbcshop.com/science+nature/the-ascent-of-man/invt/9781849901154/ with the last DVD in this series, ‘The Long Childhood’ being especially revealing. ‘Prehistory’ and the ‘Making of the Human Mind’ by Colin Renfrew, with P.Wilson’s, ‘The Domestication of the Human Species’, and Nigel Spivey’s, TV series and book, ‘How Art Made The World’, offers some further explanations. Latest reading: Jared Diamond http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jared_Diamond
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