Handbook (part) OFSTED School Inspections England UK. Ref, Evidence of ‘Indoctrination’ 1. All Schools? How Many Faiths, Beliefs, and Churches Involved In Evangelism In Schools? Ref, Children’s Minds.


 

From: The Collins Dictionary And Thesaurus. 

Spiritual : relating to the spirit or soul and not to physical nature or matter.(* I Suspect – Groomed Children, Evangelised, Hyped, Psuedo / Pantheism. In this particular context) 

Stigmatise : or ize: to mark out or describe as bad. (*The Secularists, The Humanists – and their children) 

Appropriateness :  right or suitable (Modern Science books that are ‘wishy-washy’ and saying, "Scientists, ‘think that’ there was a ‘big bang’ or ‘evolution’ is a theory’. Science is about doubt as we know : most/all religion and some ideology is about certainty, we know, but this political correctness – being nice and polite to this nonsense has all can go too far. 

Inspecting schools 

Handbook for inspecting secondary schools parts of.
 5. How well does the curriculum meet pupils’ needs?
Inspectors must evaluate and report on the extent to which the curriculum:
provides a broad range of worthwhile curricular opportunities that cater for the interests, aptitudes and particular needs of pupils and ensure progression in pupils’ learning, assessing, as appropriate, the extent to which the school:  

has a curriculum that meets statutory requirements, including provision for religious education and collective worship; provides well for pupils who have special educational needs; has well-developed curriculum programmes for students aged 14 to 19 years; provides effective personal, social and health education (including sex and relationships education, and attention to alcohol and drug misuse); is inclusive, by ensuring equality of access and opportunity for all pupils; prepares pupils effectively for subsequent stages of education, employment or further study beyond school; seeks to develop the curriculum, taking particular account of the effect of any innovative practice; provides opportunity for enrichment, including through extra-curricular provision, assessing, as appropriate, the extent to which the school:
provides support for learning outside the school day; promotes participation in sport, the arts and other interests. 

Inspectors must evaluate and report on the extent to which: the quality and quantity of accommodation and resources at the school meet the needs of the curriculum, assessing the extent to which the school has:
sufficient teaching and support staff with qualifications and experience to meet the demands of the curriculum; accommodation that allows the curriculum to be taught effectively; the resources to meet the needs of the school’s pupils and the curriculum. 
 Inspection focus
When inspecting the curriculum, consider the organisation and effectiveness of the activities that the school provides to promote learning within and beyond the school day. Activities include lessons, extra-curricular activities and homework. Take into account the effect of the school’s ethos and values on the pupils’ participation in and equal access to what it provides.
 

The inspection needs to tease out how well the curriculum supports successful teaching and learning, and how the teaching methods and pupil groupings complement it.

Within statutory requirements, schools have the freedom to provide a curriculum that meets the needs of the pupils and their own circumstances.

Some schools may have introduced innovative features into the curriculum as a result of specialist status or an application to have additional flexibility in their provision. The curriculum requirements for Academies are set out in their funding agreements, including the specialism or specialisms each has adopted. Provided that the curriculum meets pupils’ needs and the statutory and other requirements, expect to see:
        • some aspects of the National Curriculum programme of studies given more emphasis than others;
        • not every part of every subject taught in the same depth;
        • innovative arrangements for grouping subjects and/or pupils;
        • adaptations of the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) schemes of work;
        • alternative provision in Key Stage 4 involving work-based or community-based courses.
       
Inspecting the curriculum, with guidance on using the criteria
Does the curriculum meet statutory requirements, including provision for religious education and collective worship?
Establish whether the curriculum meets statutory or other requirements fully. Post-16 students are required to follow the local agreed syllabus for religious education.
Ensure that pupils have access to the curriculum they are entitled to, and that any disapplication is in accordance with statutory regulations. This includes curriculum provision 14 to 19. Inspectors must be fully conversant with the statutory requirements for the curriculum. Judge whether the school’s curricular and class groupings ensure that all pupils have the best opportunities for learning. Evaluate, where appropriate, the school’s success in implementing the local agreed syllabus for religious education. Check how far the taught time in Key Stages 3 and 4 matches the minimum recommended by the DfES (currently 24 hours a week at Key Stage 3 and 25 hours at Key Stage 4). Evaluate whether the curriculum that is set out in the prospectus or options information is implemented in practice.

Check that the school provides a daily act of collective worship, which is wholly or mainly Christian, unless other arrangements have been determined by the local Standing Advisory Committee for Religious Education (SACRE).

If parents or carers have asked that their son or daughter be withdrawn from collective worship, evaluate what is provided instead. If a school does not meet the statutory requirements, make this clear in the report and explain the judgement.

How well does the curriculum provide for pupils who have special educational needs and disabilities? Evaluate what is provided for pupils with special educational needs. Inspectors should ensure that they see the full range of pupils with SEN and disabilities, and not just those with statements. Judge whether any aspects of the curriculum are not offered to these pupils and the effect this has. Consider whether sufficient attention is given to individual pupils and their targets. Are they achieving as well as they can? Judge how well the curriculum is organised to meet the needs of pupils with SEN and disabilities, taking particular note of how teachers adjust their teaching of subjects and courses to meet their needs, and how additional support is determined from within the school (school action) or from outside (school action plus). Check that individual education plans (IEPs) are effective in ensuring that individual needs are met while enabling pupils to have full access to the curriculum. Plans should focus on a small number of individual targets and include information about:
        • the short-term targets;
        • the curriculum and teaching to be provided to help pupils to meet their targets;
        • any particular teaching strategies to be used;
        • the success criteria and arrangements for reviewing the plan. 
There are likely to be specific arrangements to provide extra help for some pupils in mathematics, English literacy and language and other communication skills. Look at a representative sample of statements of special educational need and check that what is required is being provided.
      Inspection technique: note 4 
Judging the quality of provision for pupils with SEN During the inspection, inspectors should seek to answer the question
            ‘Are pupils doing as well as they can, given their starting-points, barriers to learning and taking into account the effectiveness of provision made?’
            Select a representative sample of pupils and their records. Check that the provision outlined in statements of SEN is made and evaluate the adequacy of the progress that pupils have made, taking account of evidence provided by staff. Look for evidence of   improvements in attainment and in personal skills or behaviour. The amount of progress depends on the nature of pupils’ individual needs and the barriers to their learning.

 These judgements should take account of the quality of teaching and any modifications to the curriculum. Check that records scrutinised are used consistently by staff, show evidence of joint planning to promote access, contain accurate, well-moderated assessments and are designed well to show small steps in progress, where this is

In some schools, the use of ‘P’ levels may be appropriate. Find out whether what is in records is backed up by what is seen.
Pupils supported in class For pupils supported in class, find out whether teaching and support staff are aware of the implications of the particular needs and the nature of the barriers to learning which pupils have, as well as being clear about the learning objectives of the lesson. According to the particular needs, check whether attention is paid to:
            •how pupils are positioned so they can best learn;
            •the effectiveness of intervention in support of individual pupils;
            •who pupils with SEN are grouped with, to help them learn;
            •how well resources are adapted, modified and used to boost learning;
            •how well individual education plans relate to lesson objectives and promote effective learning;
            •specific use of technology to aid learning;
            •the quality of the partnership and dialogue between support staff and class teacher, reflected, for example, in consistent approaches, well-paced lessons and appropriate relationships, including the use of humour.
            Effective schools ensure that:
            •there is a good dialogue between support staff and pupils to promote independent learning and minimise dependence on adults;
            •support staff find different ways of explaining tasks to pupils, whenever necessary using alternative communication systems;
            •pupils sustain their attention and concentration on tasks in lessons which leads to successful learning;
            •pupils can explain what they are doing and what they are learning; they are involved with their own individual education plans or targets;
            •pupils are helped to work with other pupils as much as possible; and

            •regular feedback is provided to pupils as necessary and is recorded accurately.
            Pupils taught in special groups
            Effective schools will ensure that:
            •the purpose of the group work is clearly set out in plans;
            •the work is specifically related to improving communication skills or personal, social and behavioural skills;
            •disruption to learning in normal classes is minimised;
            •learning is designed to boost success in normal classes;
            •the work is assessed and reviewed regularly and recorded consistently;
            •for pupils who need to be taught in special groups for most of the week, attention is paid to promoting their social links with others;
            and
            •there is no evidence of pupils being stigmatised.           

Other features of provision Effective schools are inclusive.  

Making adjustments to the curriculum, teaching and assessment procedures is a routine feature to accommodate, and not discriminate against, pupils with SEN and disabilities. Inspectors should evaluate how well the school has exploited its additional resources to improve provision for all pupils. The presence of additionally resourced provision for pupils with SEN makes demands on the whole school, particularly senior managers, in ensuring that all pupils benefit as much as they can. Good headteachers know how effective the provision for SEN is by regular monitoring of the work of the SENCO and other staff. In effective schools, senior managers and governors actively support the SENCO and other specialist staff, for example by making sure all staff are aware of the SEN policy and that the values of the school are clear.

This may be shown by how pupils’ work is celebrated and how information on progress and other matters is shared with parents and others who need to know. Find out whether there is a good partnership with relevant agencies and regular contact with parents.
Evaluate the effectiveness of the work of the SENCO and other specialist staff in terms of whether:
            •roles are clear and there is good co-ordination of resourced provision and the school’s own provision;
            •the SENCO and specialist staff can easily influence the work of subject teachers;
            •SEN staff are able to transfer skills to subject teachers;
            •SEN staff show sensitivity to colleagues who may have difficulties
            or who are inexperienced;
            •SEN staff show good awareness of the funding arrangements and specific elements of provision that need to be made for individual pupils;
            •staff have clear and collectively agreed notions about what ‘adequate progress’ is;
            •staff routinely work well in developing partnerships with parents.
  The evidence about the effectiveness and appropriateness of programmes for 14 to 19 year olds may include:
        • a review of the structure, sequencing and flexibility of the curriculum and how well it meets needs;
        • tracking the progress of a sample of pupils through the routes;
        • observing a range of learning activities, including those conducted off-site, for example in work places or colleges;
        • discussing with pupils their experiences of their courses, including how they find out about new courses and are inducted into them and whether the courses meet their needs;
        • checking that pupils are able to switch courses where necessary;
        • a review of the school’s analysis of pupils’ achievements as they progress through the routes, including how well it uses this analysis to 
promote participation and inclusion;
Does the curriculum provide effectively for personal, social and health education, including sex and relationships education and attention to alcohol and drug misuse?

Find out how well all aspects of personal, social and emotional development are taught in all stages including the sixth form. Judge the confidence of staff in teaching such matters. Establish how far they show a commitment and desire to teach personal, social and health education and citizenship or are reluctant to include such issues in their work. How recently have the staff engaged in professional development to help them teach personal and social education and citizenship? Are they taught as discrete topics or integrated across the curriculum? Evaluate how far the organisation of the curriculum promotes effective teaching of these aspects. The school is required to have policies on such matters as sex and relationships education, and alcohol and drug misuse. Do these policies and associated work have a clear structure and content? Are they based on the assessed needs of pupils? How recently were the policies approved or revised? Were parents and pupils involved in forming the policies? What effect have the policies had on the coherence and expertise of teaching, its appropriateness for the age-range, and on the resulting learning? Is the school involved in the Healthy Schools Programme? How does this support their PSHE programme? 

Is the curriculum inclusive, by ensuring equality of access and opportunity for all pupils?  

The design of the curriculum should recognise that, for some pupils, teaching may be based on different and unfamiliar cultural norms, points of reference and language. Focus on a sample of pupils or groups of pupils to gain an insight into what the curriculum provides for them. Does it take account of their cultural background and religious beliefs, diverse ethnic backgrounds, special educational needs, disabilities, and particular gifts or talents? Are equality and fairness integral to the design of the curriculum? Is the sixth form fully inclusive, or is it targeted at specific groups of students? Is the school’s ethos conducive to openness and respect? ***Do pupils feel safe and able to confide in each other and in staff? Establish to what extent the school analyses how well individuals are achieving and whether the information is used to modify provision. Have any changes been evaluated? Judge whether any arrangements such as setting, withdrawal or difficult physical access reduce opportunities to experience a broad, balanced and relevant curriculum. 

***Secularists and Humanists withdrawal of children? Not ‘safe’ or practical! Why?
Does the curriculum prepare pupils effectively for subsequent stages of education, employment or further study beyond school? 
How well does the curriculum prepare pupils for future roles and life in a diverse society? Is it constructed to enable them to cope with the new demands made on them when they transfer to another stage of education? 

Inspectors can find out much about the effect of such provision by arranging discussions with staff and pupils at receiving schools and colleges. A careful analysis of the curriculum offered should indicate whether preparation for the next stage is coherent and worthwhile.
Does the curriculum involve the wider community? ***The careful inclusion of visitors, such as parents and representatives of business and community groups, as contributors to the curriculum should help pupils make the link between the work they are doing and its relevance to future life. 

***Evangelists?
Schools are generally effective at preparing students for higher education. How effective is the school at preparing sixth-form students for training and employment? Is there provision for work-related learning in the sixth form? Are there opportunities for students to engage with the community, to learn from it and to contribute to it?
In what ways does the school seek to develop the curriculum, taking particular account of the effect of any innovative practice? 
Consider whether the school is improving the curriculum through innovation or adaptations to national strategies and guidance. Are senior managers open to new ideas from within the school or from other sources such as research into effective practice? Do they consider the likely effect of innovation on learning before making changes? How carefully has the school evaluated recent curriculum developments? What use do staff make of data to evaluate the effect of the curriculum on different groups of pupils? 

***In effective schools the curriculum is evaluated on a regular, systematic basis to assess its effectiveness on pupils’ learning. In these schools, weaknesses are acted upon and solutions to problems are found. Is the school taking advantage of possible links with specialist schools, advanced skills teachers or other forms of collaboration? 

***Home grown terrorists!
Sixth-form and some Key Stage 4 provision may be multi-site or run in collaboration with other institutions, specialist teachers may be shared, or video-conferencing used to transmit lessons in minority subjects.  

Inspectors must evaluate the effect of innovation and describe highly successful practice explicitly in the report.

Opportunity for enrichment, including through extra-curricular provision 

The characteristics in table 15 illustrate where to pitch overall judgements about how well the school enriches the curriculum, including extra-curricular provision and learning outside the school day.        
       
Inspecting opportunities for enrichment, including extra-curricular provision, with guidance on using the criteria 
How well does the school provide support for learning outside the school day? 
How well does the school promote participation in sport, the arts and other interests?     

Evaluate experiences offered to pupils, looking at the range and quality of provision, participation rates and support for learning outside the school day. Effective schools offer a broad and varied programme of creative, cultural and physical activities, clubs, residencies and contributions from visitors. These are usually well established and provide additional learning opportunities, excitement and interest for pupils. They include recreational and competitive sport, activities in art, drama, music and technology, community work, foreign exchanges, theatre and exhibition visits and homework classes. The activities may be organised during lessons, lunchtimes, after school, before school and during holidays and weekends. Does the programme of extra-curricular sport help the school to provide two hours of high-quality physical education and sport a week within and outside the curriculum?
     Effective schools plan their provision and monitor and evaluate its contribution to achievement and attitudes. Consider how inclusive these programmes are and how well they are integrated into classroom work.

Discuss with pupils their views on these experiences. Consider how the personal development of pupils is enhanced through participation in these activities as well as any subject enrichment. Gather evidence, for example, on the effect of residential programmes.
The inspection report should make explicit reference to the quality of study support and provision of sport. It should also indicate, in the case of a specialist schools, the extent to which extra-curricular activities match the intentions set out in the specialist school development plan. Many schools arrange homework clubs or make available a teacher after school to offer additional support for individuals or small groups of pupils. These opportunities can be highly effective. Establish which pupils are involved and evaluate the benefits gained by them. Increasingly, schools make use of on-line curriculum resources to enable pupils to learn out of school hours. If this is the case, evaluate how effectively on-line work is integrated with that undertaken during timetabled periods.

Sixth-form enrichment programmes vary significantly from school to school. 
Normally they will encompass cultural, sporting and recreational activities, studies contributing to spiritual, moral, social and cultural understanding including PSHE, citizenship, work-related learning and careers education and the statutory provision for religious education; some elements of the programme may focus on key skills. Evaluate how well the programme meets the needs of students of particular backgrounds, such as overseas students and refugees.

 Where activities are not part of the formal sixth-form curriculum, it may be that the timetable allows for only a proportion of students to be involved. Consider whether all students have the opportunity to participate. The extent to which they are positively involved reflects their attitudes to the sixth form and what it has to offer.  

***Are there sufficient teachers and support staff with qualifications and experience to meet the needs of the curriculum? 

 ***Withdrawal from ‘Religious Time’ by students or parents. Most parents agree that their should be ‘no religion in schools’, except comparative and historical, is it a situation of the psychology of ‘denial’ by current authority?
Where a school has significant difficulties in appointing staff, a statement to this effect and any relevant data should be included in the inspection report in the section ‘Information about the school’. Where recruitment difficulties have a demonstrably detrimental effect on standards and teaching and learning, this must be explained in the relevant sections of the report, including ‘How well is the school led and managed?’ 

Evaluation of the adequacy of learning resources, and the finance to purchase enough of them, should be informed primarily through lesson observations. In addition, a close inspection of books, materials, tools and equipment, as appropriate, in classrooms, sports areas, laboratories, studios and workshops and those held centrally will give a clear indication of their sufficiency, quality, appropriateness and safety. For vocational courses, consider the extent to which pupils have access to resources that support the technical requirements of the courses.

Inspectors should judge whether the use and condition of resources enhance the quality of work in subjects and courses, or are a barrier to learning. This includes evaluating whether resources are well tuned to ***pupils’ age and needs. Good-quality resources will reflect the variety of pupils’ interests, and present gender and cultural diversity in positive ways. In effective schools, the learning resources play a significant part in helping pupils to achieve specific competencies and to become self-reliant and to participate as much as they can when they have disabilities. 

***Secularists or Humanists would require (extra) materials in ‘religious time’ for subjects such as History, Evolution, and Cosmology, plus maybe; a little Psychology or Geology. And, Qualified Teachers – how exciting! 

ACTS OF COLLECTIVE WORSHIP AND SECULAR ASSEMBLIES 

The Handbook very clearly sees judgements on collective worship as contributing to inspectors’ judgements on pupils’ SMSC development. This is reinforced by the OCA in its guidance on PSHE and citizenship when it states: 

‘Collective worship provides a daily opportunity to enhance pupils’ spiritual, moral, social and cultural development’ 

Opportunities for contributing to pupils’ SMSC development and examples of their achievements might include: 

* providing opportunities to set their learning in a broader context and to reflect on the spiritual dimension of life;
* developing pupils ‘ moral understanding and sensitivity affirming the core values which the school seeks to promote;
* developing pupils’ social and cultural understanding and promoting equality, including a respect for and understanding of the values and practices which distinguish their own and others’ religious traditions;
* practising the attitudes and skills of worship, such as expressing personal beliefs, gratitude, thoughtfulness, wonder, reverence, attentiveness, regret, forgiveness, compassion, responsibility, finding help or support, being challenged;
* celebrating our highest common values, with respect to human rights and capacities, the quality of our relationships, and our sense of responsibility for each other and the environment;
* and above all, seeking to add significance and meaning to the daily lives of pupils by acknowledging the reality of a divine being in the experience of believers. 

It is important to note that acts of worship should contribute to the SMSC development of all pupils in a school. The law requires that most acts of worship should be broadly Christian in character. However, it is collective rather than corporate worship, which is required. The term collective was deliberately chosen by the lawmakers to take account of the diversity of experience and response likely to be found in a school community.  It implies that whatever is planned should be inclusive of all who attend and that the integrity of all needs to be safeguarded. Thus collective worship should: 

* over time, contain elements which relate specifically to the traditions of Christian belief which accord a special status to Jesus Christ;
* encourage a sharing of the broad Christian vision of human experience for example, that people matter; that it is good to give and receive love and forgiveness; that it is good to express gratitude, regret and compassion and pursue justice, equality, service, sacrifice, truth, peace and honesty;
*** but also recognise that there will be pupils present who are not Christian and whose needs and beliefs must also be met and respected.

***An after statement!  

Approaches to worship should therefore be sought which include those of faiths other than Christianity and those with no specified religious stance, focusing on matters of common worth or value. 

Because the law requires that most acts of worship should be broadly Christian in character. It also follows that some acts of collective worship need not be, provided that ‘taking any school term as a whole, most acts are broadly Christian’

Schools may apply for formal disapplication from the requirement to provide Christian collective worship. 

Secular assemblies 

Assemblies and acts of collective worship are not one and the same. Assemblies of pupils in groups other than ones in which they are regularly taught may be held for a variety of reasons besides worship. ***They can play a substantial part in pupils’ SMSC development.

***Has to be qualified, as if there may be doubt! 

Opportunities for contributing to pupils’ SMSC development and examples of their achievements ***might include: 

* celebrating achievement;
* establishing a corporate identity and sense of community;
* affirming commonly held values, including human attributes such as courage and determination;
* responding to needs within the school or wider community;
* exploring aspects of the different cultures in the school and promoting equality and tolerance;
* developing pupils’ understanding of community, tolerance, compassion and support;
* practising skills such as speaking and listening, and participation in music, dance and drama.
 

***Very Weak! See, ‘The British Humanist Association’ Web Site or ‘Secularists’ Web Site. They have been well established as long as the religions have been in existence, and do have just as much to give if not more. 

These guy’s really don’t like us! 

WHY? 

"Make sure no one traps you and deprives you of your freedom by some second-hand, empty, and rational philosophy based on the principals of this world instead of on Christ. Christ alone is the true head of men and angels."    …so on.

About luckyme0

My First family, second marriage, bringing up my 18-year-old twins, boy, and girl. I am a third generation Humanist, who has some old handwritten information and notes; collected over many years. Someone may find the articles interesting, or helpful. They could bring back a little ‘reality’, after being ‘shocked’ and ‘brainwashed’, by some malicious group, or institution (REBT Therapy). People should know better, than to do this, to our very young, and the ‘obviously’ vulnerable! Go to easily accessible, non-superstitious knowledge that is not charlatanism! https://charleslizzy.com/2011/08/06/independent-schools-inspectorate-isi-marketing-spirituality-buzzword-or-maybe-even-for-you-to-shiver-at-the-something/ The blog has given me an incentive to order my thoughts, learn, and read up again, after a few non-thinking years of (very silly) imagination and passion. Why not, get your own key to a ‘door’, customise it to suit you, and it can be, all of your very own! Don’t believe, or be led by someone else’s; inherited, stupid, and a very likely (past, and not of today’s) ‘totally preposterous reality’s’. Only some interest in the ‘really big questions’, keeps life above the level of a farce, and very little else! KEEP THINKING! Some of the posts may need some correcting. Interests: REBT Counselling, Atheism, Secularism, Humanism, Psychology, Reading, Popular Science, School Ethos, Philosophy, History, Family, Parenting, Psychology, Horse Riding, Sailing, Rescue Boat Driver, Skiing (Teppichswinger), TV Documentaries, Motorbike Cross Country Riding, Volunteer Sports Stewarding, Writing, Primitive Man, Pre-history, Social Anthropology, British Humanist Association, BHA, Meaning of Life, The Big Questions, Where am I, What am I, Why am I, Hippie Love, Knowledge, Education, Globalisation. Favorite quote: “The world belongs to those who, at least to some degree, have figured it out.” Carl Sagan, ‘The Demon Haunted World’, ‘Contact’, and other famous books DVD ‘Cosmos’. The warning of another and horrendous, “Age of Superstition”. “Isn’t there something deeply absurd in the presumption that children ought to inherit beliefs from their parents. It can be deeply damaging, even lethally divisive. A ‘them’, with an ‘against us’, mentality” – Professor Richard Dawkins. “The will to believe is stronger than mere reason in the vast majority of people” – Dr J.Brown, Army Psychologist of the 1960′s. Humans will believe in almost anything, in fact, they seek it! Why? “98% of us, trained to be just good consumers, let’s train our children to be the 2% who have their very own creativity and discernment”; quote by a famous surreal artist. “The lack of reason brings forth monsters”. “Global interconnectedness is lethal against mass religion, nationalism, racism, and other destructive memeplexes. Let us connect everybody they hate it in restrictive regimes”; from the ‘meme learning group’, Richard Brodie’s book, ‘Virus Of The Mind’ (Richard Brodie a designer for ‘Microsoft Word’). Following on, J.Bronowski, and ‘The Ascent Of Man’ TV series, and a book http://www.bbcshop.com/science+nature/the-ascent-of-man/invt/9781849901154/ with the last DVD in this series, ‘The Long Childhood’ being especially revealing. ‘Prehistory’ and the ‘Making of the Human Mind’ by Colin Renfrew, with P.Wilson’s, ‘The Domestication of the Human Species’, and Nigel Spivey’s, TV series and book, ‘How Art Made The World’, offers some further explanations. Latest reading: Jared Diamond http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jared_Diamond
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